LTE (Long Term Evolution) and SAE (System Architecture Evolution) is a new standard set by the 3GPP. It is the next step in cellular radio networking, after 3G technologies such as UMTS. Thanks to simplified protocols and a flat, all-IP architecture, higher data rates and lower latency are achieved. This makes LTE ideally suited for all kinds of multimedia services, voice, video, mobile TV and internet data. LTE increases throughput and available bandwidth, reduces costs, and can be deployed on existing 3G infrastructure. It can even serve as an upgrade from other platforms such as CDMA.
GSM stands for Global System for Mobile Communications and is the world standard for mobile telephony. Because it offers digital quality, it is considered a second generation (2G)-standard for telephony that can be complimented with various protocols for wireless data transmission. GSM is under constant development. Recently this has led to additional protocols offering packet data capabilities (GPRS) and high-speed data transmission capabilities (EDGE). Different continents use different frequency standards for GSM-telephony. The most important ones are the 900 and 1800 bands, the standard in Europe and most other continents. North and Central America use the 850 and 1900 bands.
CDMA stands for Code division multiple access (is a channel access method used by various radio communication technologies. It should not be confused with the mobile phone standards called cdmaOne, CDMA2000 (the 3G evolution of cdmaOne) and WCDMA (the 3G standard used by GSM carriers), which are often referred to as simply CDMA, and use CDMA as an underlying channel access method.
UMTS is a third generation technology for mobile telephony. An alternative for the GSM-standard, it offers high-speed data transfer capabilities (with a theoretical speed of up to 14 Mbit/s) and is often used for applications such as mobile video, video conferencing and high-speed Internet access.
GPRS or General Packet Radio Service is often described as a second-and-a-half generation technology, adding mobile data services to the GSM-standard. Unlike previous technologies, GPRS allows for billing by the volume of data transferred rather than the typical charge-per-minute of traditional GSM-technology. This makes GPRS suitable as the underlying protocol for WAP access, SMS and MMS applications as well as for Voice over IP (VoIP)-services delivered to mobile devices.
Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), also known as Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS), improves data transfer speeds and reliability. Like GPRS, EDGE is packet-switching technology that allows service providers to charge by the volume of data rather than having per-minute connection fees. EDGE is generally used for delivering multimedia services to mobile devices.
High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) is a third generation protocol building on the UMTS-standard. It allows for higher data transfer speeds. It requires nothing but a relatively simple software upgrade of existing UMTS-networks to allow for HSDPA-communications.
WiMax or WirelessMAN is a technology allowing for last mile connections to broadband Internet services. It thus provides a wireless alternative for cable or DSL-based broadband connection. It is widely used to connect Wi-fi-hotspots to one another. WiMax is a standard that replaces many propriety ‘fixed wireless technologies’ that provide broadband access. The people at TCG have experience working with WiMax and its predecessors, such as LMDS, since 2000.
Wi-fi is a branded name for applications making use of the underlying IEEE 802.11-technology. Originally developed for wireless LAN and Internet access in mobile devices such as laptops and PDA’s, wi-fi is now used for connecting many devices, including televisions and digital cameras. New applications are under way, allowing wi-fi to be used in cars and intelligent transport systems, to increase safety and to gather statistics.
Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology used for identifying objects, animals and even persons through the use of radio technology. RFID-tags or transponders can be implemented and then identified using radio waves. These transponders are either passive (not using any internal power source) or active.